Slow Food works to preserve agricultural land, protect landscapes, defend biodiversity and promote gastronomic traditions. The Presidia project was set up to support high-quality small-scale products at risk of extinction.
The Presidia that involve wine producers are aimed at safeguarding examples of artisanal winemaking that play a particular role in preserving a landscape, biodiversity or traditional production techniques, integrated with a concern for the sustainability of agricultural practices, which must respect the health of the planet and the drinker.
The producers from these Presidia are part of the Vignerons d'Europe network.
Production of the wine allows the safeguarding of a particularly threatened or hard-to-manage agricultural territory, with the objective of protecting the heritage represented by the vineyards.
Biodiversity must be maintained in the vineyard; monocultures must be avoided and attention must be focused on all the natural and traditional elements present in the area (trees, animals and other crops characteristic of the place).
Production must adapt to the original agricultural environment and preserve the traditional farming characteristics (landscape), applying traditional cultivation methods, planting patterns and training systems.
Production must take place somewhere traditionally suited to viticulture and only in suitable parcels of land.
The varieties cultivated must have a strong link to the history and identity of the place. The defense of grape variety biodiversity and native varieties is one of the objectives of the Presidia project.
All the manual or mechanical agronomical practices necessary to obtain healthy grapes (with the exception of noble rot) and to limit corrections during vinification must be applied in the vineyard.
Working of the land must be limited and respect the variety being cultivated.
Techniques must aim to preserve and add value to the land itself and the vineyard.
It is preferable to avoid the use of fertilizers. In any case, no chemical fertilizer can be used.
Only physical or mechanical weedkilling operations can be used to manage weeds.
Plant disease protection must be rational and based on the variety's sensitivity and climate patterns
in the cultivation zone. Any plant disease treatments must use products with a low environmental
impact and respect the correct doses and timing. Synthetic chemical products that work systemically are not allowed.
Old vineyards represent a heritage to be safeguarded, and they characterize the Presidium and its environment. Producers must undertake to keep old vineyards productive and healthy and to avoid unjustified explanting and replanting.
The creation of new vineyards must be evaluated and regulated within the Presidium producers' association. The use of concrete posts is not allowed when replanting.
To preserve biodiversity in the vineyard, new plantings must preferably use rootings obtained from multi-year massal selection from healthy, high-quality vineyards. In the case of a variety where valid clonal selections are available on the market, a maximum of 50% can be used in multi-clonal form in new plantings together with massal selections.
The use of genetically modified varieties is absolutely not allowed.
Enological practices and techniques must preserve the authenticity and originality of the wine.
Grapes must be picked by hand, the bunches carefully selected and their integrity preserved.
Vinification operations must be carried out within the Presidium production area.
The winery must be maintained to ensure maximum hygiene.
The use of native yeasts is preferred, and the use of aromatic and, obviously, genetically modified yeasts is forbidden.
Natural fermentation processes must be respected and therefore the use of enzymes and agents that activate fermentation is not allowed.
The addition of any kind of artificial flavoring or other synthetic chemical additive is not allowed.
The use of chemical substances during vinification to modify the characteristics of the wine is not allowed, nor are concentration and dealcoholization procedures.
Sulfur dioxide should be used very sparingly and without causing excessive production of bound sulfur dioxide.
The use of processes that accelerate the aging of the wine is not allowed.
As well as guaranteeing the expression of the producer's personal style, Presidia wines must also present the sensory characteristics linked to the identity of the product.